Computer science’s use of quantum theory is known as quantum computing. The behavior of energy and matter at the atomic and subatomic scales is explained by quantum theory. Subatomic particles, such electrons or photons, are used in quantum computing. These particles may exist simultaneously in two states (i.e., 1 and 0) thanks to quantum bits, or qubits.
Linked qubits may theoretically use the interference between their wave-like quantum states to accomplish processes that would normally take millions of years. In order to encode information in bits, traditional computers nowadays use a binary stream of electrical impulses (1 and 0). Compared to quantum computing, this limits their capacity to process information.
The domains of security, finance, military affairs and intelligence, drug development, aircraft design, utilities (nuclear fusion), polymer design, machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), big data search, and digital manufacturing might all benefit substantially from quantum computing.
Information exchange might be made more secure with the help of quantum computers. or to enhance radars’ capacity to find missiles and planes. The environment and maintaining clean water with chemical sensors is another area where quantum computing is anticipated to be helpful. Quantum computing has a few drawbacks as well. The smallest change in the qubit environment can result in decay, or decoherence. This causes computations to fail or make mistakes in them. As mentioned before, a quantum computer has to be shielded from all outside disturbance while it is doing calculations.
The process of correcting errors while computing is still far from ideal. Because of this, calculations may not be accurate. Qubits cannot take use of the traditional error correcting techniques employed by classical computers since they are not digital bits of data. The data may get tainted when retrieving calculation results. There is potential in innovations like a specific database search algorithm that guarantees that the quantum state will decohere into the proper response upon measurement.